1. Whether Vermont's mandatory limits on candidate expenditures violate the First Amendment and this Court's decision in Buckley v. Valeo, 424 U.S. 1 (1976). 2. Whether Vermont's treatment of independent expenditures by political parties and committees as presumptively coordinated if they benefit fewer than six candidates, and thereby subject to strict contribution and expenditure limits, is consistent with the First Amendment and this Court's decision in Colorado Republican Federal Campaign Comm. v. Federal Election Comm 'n, 518 U.S. 604 (1996).3. Whether Vermont's contribution limits, which are the lowest in the country, which allow only a single maximum contribution in an entire two-year general election cycle, and which prohibit even state political parties from contributing more than §400 to their gubernatorial candidate, fall below an acceptable constitutional threshold and should be struck down.Question:
(1) Do expenditure limits for political candidates violate the First Amendment's guarantee of freedom of speech? (2) Are Vermont's contribution limits of $200-$400 per candidate for individuals, political groups, and political parties unconstitutionally low under the First Amendment?